M31 - Andromeda Galaxy - (NGC 224)

TeleVue NP-101 and Canon 20Da DSLR camera
Paramount ME
Exposure Time: Exposure Time: Exposure Time: 12 x 10 minute exposures
Total Exposure Time: Total Exposure Time: Total Exposure Time: 2 hours
Seeing: Seeing: Seeing: 7
Transparency: Transparency: Transparency: 8
Images stacked using DeepSky Stacker and processed with Photoshop CS2, Noiseware Professional and Star Spikes Pro software


The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224; often referred to as the Great Andromeda Nebula in older texts) is a spiral galaxy approximately 2,500,000 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the nearest spiral galaxy to our own, the Milky Way. As it is visible as a faint smudge on a moonless night, it is one of the farthest objects visible to the naked eye, and can be seen even from urban areas with binoculars. It is named after the princess Andromeda in Greek mythology. Andromeda is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which consists of the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy, the Triangulum Galaxy, and about 30 other smaller galaxies. Although the largest, Andromeda may not be the most massive, as recent findings suggest that the Milky Way contains more dark matter and may be the most massive in the grouping. The 2006 observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that M31 contains one trillion stars, more than twice the number of stars in our own galaxy which is estimated to be 200-400 billion.

While the 2006 estimates put the mass of the Milky Way to be ~80% of the mass of Andromeda, which is estimated to be 7.1 1011 solar masses, a 2009 study concluded that Andromeda and the Milky Way are about equal in mass.

At an apparent magnitude of 4.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is notable for being one of the brightest Messier objects, making it easily visible to the naked eye even when viewed from areas with moderate light pollution. Although it appears more than six times as wide as the full moon when photographed through a larger telescope, only the brighter central region is visible with the naked eye.



Manchester, MI - 11/07/2009
Imaged By: Jeff Thrush